Data patterns are very useful when they are drawn graphically. Data patterns commonly described in terms of features like center, spread, shape, and other unusual properties. Other special descriptive labels are symmetric, bell-shaped, skewed, etc.

## Center

The center of a distribution, graphically, is located at the median of the distribution. Such a graphic chart displays that almost half of the observations are on either side. Height of each column indicates the frequency of observations.

## Spread

The spread of a distribution refers to the variation of the data. If the set of observation covers a wide range, the spread is larger. If the observations are centered around a single value, then the spread is smaller.

## Shape

The shape of a distribution can described using following characteristics.

**Symmetry**– In symmetric distribution, graph can be divided at the center in such a way that each half is a mirror image of the other.**Number of peaks.**– Distributions with one or multiple peaks. Distribution with one clear peak is known as unimodal, and distribution with two clear peaks is called bimodal. A single peak symmetric distribution at the center, is referred to as bell-shaped.**Skewness**– Some distributions may have multiple observations on one side of the graph than the other side. Distributions having fewer observations towards lower values are said to be skewed right; and distributions with fewer observations towards lower values are said to be skewed left.**Uniform**– When the set of observations has no peak and have data equally spread across the range of the distribution, then the distribution is called a uniform distribution.

## Unusual Features

Common unusual features of data patterns are gaps and outliers.

**Gaps**– Gaps points to areas of a distribution having no observations. Following figure has a gap as there are no observations in the middle of the distribution.**Outliers**– Distributions may be characterized by extreme values that differ greatly from the other set of observation data. These extreme values are refered as outliers. Following figure illustrates a distribution with an outlier.

Table of Contents

1.statistics adjusted rsquared

2.statistics analysis of variance

4.statistics arithmetic median

8.statistics best point estimation

9.statistics beta distribution

10.statistics binomial distribution

11.statistics blackscholes model

13.statistics central limit theorem

14.statistics chebyshevs theorem

15.statistics chisquared distribution

16.statistics chi squared table

17.statistics circular permutation

18.statistics cluster sampling

19.statistics cohens kappa coefficient

21.statistics combination with replacement

23.statistics continuous uniform distribution

24.statistics cumulative frequency

25.statistics coefficient of variation

26.statistics correlation coefficient

27.statistics cumulative plots

28.statistics cumulative poisson distribution

30.statistics data collection questionaire designing

31.statistics data collection observation

32.statistics data collection case study method

34.statistics deciles statistics

36.statistics exponential distribution

40.statistics frequency distribution

41.statistics gamma distribution

43.statistics geometric probability distribution

46.statistics gumbel distribution

49.statistics harmonic resonance frequency

51.statistics hypergeometric distribution

52.statistics hypothesis testing

53.statistics interval estimation

54.statistics inverse gamma distribution

55.statistics kolmogorov smirnov test

57.statistics laplace distribution

58.statistics linear regression

59.statistics log gamma distribution

60.statistics logistic regression

63.statistics means difference

64.statistics multinomial distribution

65.statistics negative binomial distribution

66.statistics normal distribution

67.statistics odd and even permutation

68.statistics one proportion z test

69.statistics outlier function

71.statistics permutation with replacement

73.statistics poisson distribution

74.statistics pooled variance r

75.statistics power calculator

77.statistics probability additive theorem

78.statistics probability multiplicative theorem

79.statistics probability bayes theorem

80.statistics probability density function

81.statistics process capability cp amp process performance pp

83.statistics quadratic regression equation

84.statistics qualitative data vs quantitative data

85.statistics quartile deviation

86.statistics range rule of thumb

87.statistics rayleigh distribution

88.statistics regression intercept confidence interval

89.statistics relative standard deviation

90.statistics reliability coefficient

91.statistics required sample size

92.statistics residual analysis

93.statistics residual sum of squares

94.statistics root mean square

96.statistics sampling methods

98.statistics shannon wiener diversity index

99.statistics signal to noise ratio

100.statistics simple random sampling

102.statistics standard deviation

103.statistics standard error se

104.statistics standard normal table

105.statistics statistical significance

108.statistics stem and leaf plot

109.statistics stratified sampling

112.statistics tdistribution table

113.statistics ti 83 exponential regression

114.statistics transformations

116.statistics type i amp ii errors

119.statistics weak law of large numbers